Staining properties of platinum blue
Staining properties of osmium tetroxide
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Staining: Platinum-blue staining
Microscope: LVSEMSample: Paraffin section (IgA nephropathy)
Accelerating voltage: 15 kV
P: Podocytes (Epithelial cells) E: Vascular endothelial cells M: Mesangial cells GBM: Glomerular basement membranes MM: Mesangial matrix Bs: Bowman's space
Image descriptionLVSEM image5) of a glomerulus from a patient with IgA nephropathy stained with platinum blue. Podocytes (epithelial cells, P) and vascular endothelial cells (E) are stained positive with platinum blue and are the brightest in the image. Mesangial cells (M) are slightly darker than these cells. The glomerular basement membranes (GBM: arrows) and mesangial matrix (MM) are negative with platinum blue and appear dark in the image. These differences in staining specificity allow the unambiguous identification of each glomerular component. Inset: The thickness of the GBM (determined using the measurement mode of the SEM).
Staining: PAM staining
Microscope: LVSEMSample: Paraffin section (Membranous glomerulonephritis)
P: Podocytes (Epithelial cells) E: Vascular endothelial cells M: Mesangial cells GBM: Glomerular basement membranes MM: Mesangial matrix L: Capillary lumen Bs: Bowman's space
Image descriptionLVSEM image 5) of a glomerulus from a patient with membranous glomerulonephritis stained with PAM. The glomerular basement membranes (GBM: arrows) and mesangial matrix (MM) are stained positive with PAM and are visualized as bright and distinct structures. The basement membranes show spike formation that is characteristic of membranous glomerulonephritis. Podocytes (epithelial cells, P) that line the outer surface of the glomerular capillaries, vascular endothelial cells (E), immune substances, and mesangial cells (M) are negative with PAM and thus appear dark and undefined in the image.
When paraffin sections of renal glomeruli are stained with platinum blue or PAM, their basic structures show differences in brightness as indicated below. This produces a light-dark contrast between neighboring structures in LVSEM images.
In images of platinum blue-stained samples, we can detect disease-specific morphological alterations of podocytes and mesangial regions (cells and matrix). In contrast, PAM staining reveals different features, including the structural changes of basement membranes and the expansion of mesangial matrix.
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